Aikido– The way of harmony. Founded by Morehei Ueshiba in 1925. Aikido incorporates locking maneuvers aimed at injuring joints, along with throwing techniques from Jujutsu.


Angle of attack– The angle of and trajectory of an opponent’s attacking move, made with the fist, foot, or a weapon.


Ashiwaza– A Japanese word used in Judo for all foot throwing techniques where the foot is used to sweep or hook the leg or foot of an opponent.


Boxing– A form of fighting that stresses using only your fist to strike your opponent. Ancient forms of the art can be traced as far back to ancient Egypt around 3000 bc. Modern Boxing as we know it originated in England around 1719.


Brazilian Jiu-jitsu– Jujutsu developed in Brazil. Founders Carlos and Helio Gracie. This art evolved from Kodokan Judo thanks largely from Mitsuo Maeda.


Capoeira– Is a art that blends combat, music, dance, and singing that originated among African slaves who were brought to Brazil by the Portuguese during the 16th century.


Catch Wrestling– It means catch as catch can. Date of origin 19th century. No known founder. Catch wrestlers win matches by a pin down or by a submission.


Center line– An imaginary line running between, and relating to, the positionof the practioner’s body and that of an opponent.


Collegiate Wrestling– American college wrestling. Date of origin 1905. Founder Edward Gallagher. Sometimes known as scholastic wrestling which is practices in universities, colleges, high schools, and middle schools. It’s origins are in catch wrestling.


Dojo– A Japanese martial arts training hall. Also commonly used as a generic term for any martial arts training hall.


Empty hand– A term that refers to techniques performed without a weapon or systems that are predominantly not weapons based.


Etiquette– In martial arts terms, etiquette describes the courtesy, respect, and appropriate behavior expected in the dojo.


Eskrima– Also known as Kali and Arnis. From Esgrima meaning fencing in Spanish. No known date of origin or founder. This art hails from the Philippines.


Free sparring– A method of teaching used in karate, which allows students to learn techniques by using them in informal fight training.


Front  kick– A kick that involves raising the knee in front of the body and then straightening the leg to strike an opponent with the foot.


Gi–  A Japanese word to describe the traditional martial arts uniform


Grappling– Techniques that focus on holding, throwing, and locking the joints of an opponent, ad commonly found in wrestling based arts.

Greco Roman Wrestling– founded by Exbroyat one of Napoleon Bonaparte’s soldiers. Founded in 1848. It is based on ancient forms of wrestling. Headlocks and bear hugs are common, and throws are the usual techniques. Players are not allowed to attack below the waist.


Joint lock– A technique, used in many types of martial arts, that involves manipulating an opponent’s limbs to a point where they cannot move anymore.


Judoka– A Japanese word for a practitioner of Judo.


Jujutsu– The art of softness. No known founder or date of origin. The name was not coined until the 17th century. The art formuseum is the basis of Judo and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. It incorporates pins, joint locks, and throws.


Judo– The gentle way. Founded by Kano Jigoro in the 19th century. Judo is based on several forms of Jujutsu. Techniques include joint locks, chokes, strangulation, throws, slams, sweeps, takedowns, and trips.


Karate– Empty hand. Founded in Okinawa in the 19th century by a group called the Revivers. Originally known as to-de or China hand. Two is a Chinese word  meaning hand. Kicks, punches, knees, elbows, blocks and concepts of Jujutsu and Judo are used in many forms of this art.


Kickboxing– date of origin 1970s. Place of origin USA. Kickboxing is a contact martial art that combines western boxing with kicks of karate. The term Kickboxing was coined when kyokushin karate fighters invited muay thai fighters to Japan in the late 1950s and 60s to compete.


Krav Maga– Contact combat in Hebrew. Date of origin 1930. Founded by Imi Lichtenfeld. Training involves techniques against chokes, grabs, as well as against weapims, such as pistols, machine guns, and knives.


Modern Mixed Martial Arts (MMA)– Mixed Martial Arts is a combat sport I’m which fighters compete in a ring using full contact techniques, such as grappling and striking, that are derived from a variety of martial arts. The concept of combining techniques from different art forms has existed for thousands of years. The terms mixed martial arts and MMA only became popular in 1993 with emergence of the UFC. Modern MMA can be traced back to the Gracie family in Brazil and it’s ancient roots go back to Greece and the art of pankration. MMA has three main areas: groundwork, clinch work, and stand up striking. Judo, catch wrestling, sambo, Brazilian Jujutsu, greco roman wrestling, muay thai, kickboxing, boxing, and karate make up the core of this art form.


Martial Arts– A term derived from Mars, the Roman god of war that describes arts of a martial or warlike nature.


Muay Thai– Thai boxing in Thai. Indigenous art and no known founder. Muay Thai is often called the art of eight limbs, because practitioners use eight points of attack: feet, hands, elbows, and knees.


Ninjutsu– School of Endurance, perseverance, and forbearance. Founded by En No Gyoja in the 7th century.


Pankration– All power or all strength in ancient Greek. No known founder. This ancient full contact fight art became an Olympic sport in 648 BC and is one of the world’s oldest martial arts.


Pin– A generic term used to describe the action of pinning an opponent to the ground.


Rank– A term that describes the level of mastery of an art or style that a martial artist has achieved.


Sambo– Self defense without a weapon. Date of origin 1930. Founder Anatomy Kharlampiev. It is has Japanese, Chinese, Mongolian, Armenian, Georgian, and Russian, and French martial arts. It has 3 variations: self defense, special combat, and the sport form. The sport form is is similar to the Japanese art Daito Ryu Aiki Jujutsu.

Samurai– Ancient Japanese warriors who belonged to the military aristocracy.


Sensei– A Japanese word that means teacher or master.


Shoot fighting– Mix of boxing and wrestling. Founded by Caesar Takeshi in 1985 in Japan.


Sifu– A Chinese word that means teacher or master.


Sojo– The originator of a martial system or school.


Soke– The head of the family, head master, leader of the the school or style.


Tae Kwon Do– The way of hand and foot in Korean. Date of origin 1955. Founded by Choi Hong Hi. Most of tae Kwon do’s teachings comes from two arts: taekyon
and subak.